Chemical substances added to the water to separate the pollutants that are suspended or dissolved in the water and cause turbidity and pollution from the water are called coagulants. Suspended, colloidal, and dissolved impurities in water are generally negatively charged. In order to remove these impurities from the water, positively charged coagulant substances are dosed, while the wastewater is mixed slowly and appropriately, the small particles are combined to grow and become flocs that can easily collapse, and these flocs are separated from the wastewater by settling in the sedimentation unit at the next stage.
Using different amounts and dosages of coagulants depending on the incoming pollution load;
In drinking water, organic and inorganic substances are removed from the water, color removal, bacteria, pathogen removal, algae, organism and substances that create smell and taste in water are removed from the water. In wastewater, BOD, AKM, COD, Heavy Metal, etc. removal is provided.
It is used in chemical treatment, drinking water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Chemical treatment systems consist of NEUTRALIZATION and COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION and SOLUTION processes.
The factors affecting the chemical treatment process are as follows;
✓ pH value of wastewater
✓ Load amount of organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater
✓ In coagulation-flocculation processes, waiting time, mixing speed, physical properties of sedimentation chamber.
✓ The temperature of the wastewater
✓ Properties of ions in wastewater
✓ Type and dosage of coagulant
Before all the chemical treatment steps mentioned above are carried out and applied in the treatment units, 1,000 ml and/or 500 ml samples are taken from the water in question and the processes to be performed are carried out step by step, and the appropriate mixing speeds for the plant, the amount of coagulant substance dosage, the ph working range and the efficient settling times. We call the detection and monitoring process the JAR (jar) test.
The coagulants, flocculants used in chemical treatment, acid and base-containing chemicals that provide pH control, and the sludge formed accordingly are very important in terms of the operating costs of the plant. These JAR tests and wastewater treatability studies are very important in terms of optimizing operating costs. With a good chemical treatment, treatment removal efficiency in the range of 40-80% can be achieved.
Due to the change in production diversity in the enterprise and the production in different processes over time; Differences occur in structures that cause pollution in water. However, no matter what kind of pollution comes to the facilities of the enterprises, they work with a single recipe and the dosage amount in the treatment facilities, causing the chemical treatment units to work inefficiently. In case of differences in production, especially in factories with industrial wastewater treatment plants, it is necessary to determine the appropriate dosage range by performing JAR tests on the inlet water of the facility.
The purpose of chemical treatment is to remove the polluted parameters of the wastewater from the water. In many businesses, other units complement the treatment such as biological treatment, filtration system after chemical treatment. Failure to do chemical treatment correctly and healthily may cause the said treatment units to not work, blocking filter filling materials in drinking water systems, and negative effects such as bacterial death in biological treatment units. For this reason, it is important to determine the appropriate dosage and the appropriate amount of coagulant with JAR tests, where the chemical treatment processes will be monitored regularly.
Various chemicals are used as coagulants in chemical treatment.
Some of those ;
Polyamine, High basicity polymeric flocculants, Ferric III chloride, Ferrous Sulphate, Potassium Permanganate, Aluminum Sulphate, Organic and Inorganic Polymers, etc.
In order for the chemicals mentioned above to work with sufficient performance, the wastewater ph value must be in the appropriate range. Therefore, it may be necessary to regulate the ph value in the wastewater, Lime, Caustic, Hydrochloric Acid, Sulfuric Acid can be used as ph regulator. The supply of the chemicals in question is provided by our company.
To determine which of the chemicals mentioned above will be used at what rate, the JAR Test should be performed on the wastewater sample. JAR test can be performed by our company both in the field and in our company’s laboratory.
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