Polluted water used in households and industrial areas in the agricultural field can be defined as wastewater. Wastewater can be used only in domestic agricultural or industrial areas, as well as water from mining enterprises and mineral processing organizations, water from common areas such as streets and parking lots resulting from urbanization, and water that is mixed with groundwater as a result of rainfall from these areas.
Domestic wastewater can be defined as the water polluted by people to meet their various needs in homes. It can be said that domestic wastes are wastewater that can be cleaned more than the pollution rate in water other than toilets. However, the rate of pollution is increasing as urbanization gradually increases, the content of chemicals used for cleaning is gradually changing, and the use of substances that can pollute the water more and more in these chemicals. Toilet water, on the other hand, is more difficult to clean wastewater.
Industrial wastewater, on the other hand, is wastewater that comes out of production sites that carry out commercial activities and is discharged to nature, unlike domestic wastewater and rainwater. During the treatment of industrial wastewater, the rate at which the substances in it will be cleaned is determined by regulations. Also, these limits are determined depending on the sector.
According to which criteria the wastewater to be given to nature will be treated depends on where it will be used. Wastewater to be treated to nature should not disturb the balance of nature and not disturb the existing ecological balance. Therefore, minarets lost in the content of polluted water should also be balanced. Therefore, wastewater should be treated with an appropriate method and technique. If the treated water is used to increase the amount of drinking water in nature, a treatment process appropriate to the nature of the source to be discharged should be applied. If it is to be used in the agricultural field, it should be treated following agricultural activities. It is also very important from which area the wastewater comes from and how it gets contaminated. Because treatment methods are determined depending on the content of contaminated water. In short, wastewater treatment is directly related to the pollution state of the polluted water and in which area it will be used.
Wastewater causes pollution of natural spring waters, as can be expected at first. The main factors that cause water pollution are the rapid increase of the population, urbanization, and the gradual development of the industry. The worst consequence of water pollution is epidemic diseases. Due to water pollution, infectious diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, diarrhea, hepatitis, and malaria are easily transmitted to humans and seriously threaten human life. An increase in water consumption and consequently an increase in water pollution cause serious problems in the amount of natural spring waters, which are already limited. Water pollution is increasing rapidly due to these factors. The mixing of chemical substances in wastewater with natural spring waters in different ways disrupts the natural structure of spring waters and adversely affects human health. Again, pesticides used in agriculture mix into spring waters, Pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture mix with groundwater with precipitation and mix with the waters fed by these waters. When fertilizers containing nitrate and phosphate are mixed with water, they increase the amount of algae in the water. Since algae use the oxygen in the water, it endangers the life of other living things.
Wastewater not only endangers the life of aquatic creatures by polluting the water but also affects other animals indirectly. When animals consume from plants exposed to wastewater during feeding, they are exposed to pollutants. Besides, when polluted water is drunk by animals when the materials used as feed are irrigated with untreated water, the animals’ health is seriously endangered when the plants grown with these waters are eaten by the animals. Harmful microorganisms taken from these substances can make animals sick and cause them to die. Also, when people consume the products of animals consuming untreated wastewater – such as meat, milk, eggs – indirectly, people’s health is negatively affected by these products. Water pollution is a very dangerous situation for aquatic life in the long term. Water pollution not only causes the extinction of aquatic creatures but also negatively affects the life of all living things in nature. negatively affecting the quality of water, causing harm to human health. Such drugs or fertilizers can cause poisoning or even death by mixing with spring waters. Chemical and organic components in wastewater affect the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water and cause it to decrease. This situation threatens the life of aquatic creatures. This situation, which causes the natural balance to deteriorate, also disrupts the structure of the water, causing the death of aquatic plants and animals. Water exposed to pollution becomes darker and smelly. In some lakes and streams, life has ended as a result of pollution.
The harmful substances in the soil, which are contaminated for many different reasons, also affect the plants growing in that soil negatively. Especially plants grown in agricultural areas exposed to untreated wastewater absorb harmful substances in the water and soil through their roots. This affects plant life negatively. A large part of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged into rivers. When rivers contaminated with these waters are used in agricultural areas, they contaminate the soil and thus spoil the structure of the soil in the long term. As time passes, these soils become inefficient and barren.
Discharging wastewater without treatment is a situation that directly or indirectly harms living things. This pollution of the limited water resources in the world endangers the life of all living things in the world and causes water scarcity by reducing the renewable water in the natural cycle. Therefore, water polluted for various reasons should be treated and recycled.