HOW AND WHICH AREAS IT USED BY WASTEWATER TREATMENT?
Wastewater is the water that is produced as a result of the change in the content of polluted water by using it in the home industry, agricultural field, and other areas. In addition, it can be defined as the waters that are formed as a result of the contamination of the groundwaters by passing under the ground with the natural flow, such as streets and mining sites, which we use in daily life.
Considering that water pollution and water scarcity are increasing day by day, it can be said that the share of wastewater in this is quite high. It is known that clean water resources used by people are decreasing day by day due to various reasons. This puts living life in danger. Most of the world is covered with water, but the freshwater resources used by living creatures are limited. Considering that water pollution has reached alarming levels, it will be inevitable that living things will face serious water shortages.
On the other hand, water released to nature without treatment also increases water pollution to a large extent. Polluted water, which is used in homes, industry, various industrial establishments, and agricultural areas, is mixed with the clean water that decreases day by day and decreases its amount thoroughly.
In a broad sense, the water that people use and pollute in daily life in areas such as residential areas, schools, hotels, and hospitals can be defined as domestic wastewater. Changing needs and population growth have greatly increased water consumption and consequently water pollution. Domestic wastewater is water from showers, washing machines, and toilets. Wastewater other than toilets can be considered partially cleaner. In other words, domestic wastewater other than toilet water has a less polluting effect. Detergent wastes, which are harmful in domestic wastewater, increase the degree of pollution. The amount of nitrogen in domestic wastewater is higher in wastewater from toilet water. Therefore, wastewater from places such as sinks, showers, and bathrooms can be cleaned more easily.
Another area where wastewater is generated is wastewater other than domestic wastewater and rainwater, which are generated as a result of industrial activities. Industrial wastewater can be described as process wastewater emerging during production. These may contain residues of raw materials depending on the content of the production. These wastewaters can contain organic or inorganic substances. Discharge limits of industrial wastewater are determined according to the Water Pollution Regulation according to the sectors.
Leaving domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater to nature without treatment adversely affects the existing natural spring waters and endangers the life of living beings. Increasing water consumption and eliminating the problem of wastewater released to nature without treatment or treating it with the least harm to nature has brought to the agenda. Wastewater treatment facilities contribute to the harmless return of polluted water to nature through treatment and to its use in different areas.
Water consumption, which has increased rapidly in the world for different reasons, has brought the issue of recycling and reuse of wastewater. The need for water is increasing, besides, various projects are produced to use the ever-decreasing water resources efficiently. One of these solutions is the use of purified water in the agricultural area, which needs very high amounts of water. With this method applied in the world, both wastewater is treated and recycled, and it has contributed significantly to water conservation. For treatment water to be used in the agricultural field, it must undergo an appropriate treatment process and must meet certain criteria. Thus, the water needed in agriculture can be met from here. This method, which is used in many countries, is very important in terms of more efficient use of freshwater resources and reducing the impact of wastewater on the environment. The most important condition for using treated wastewater in agricultural activities is the quality of the treated water. Wastewater should be treated following these criteria and used in the agricultural field in this way. Wastewater that can be treated and used as irrigation water is the most suitable water to achieve these criteria. Therefore, it is widely used in many countries of the world in terms of water recycling. In our country, most of the freshwater resources are used as irrigation water in the agricultural field, which makes it necessary to treat and make wastewater available. In our country, the need for water has been increasing in recent years and water consumption has been increasing accordingly. Despite this, there are limited applications in our country in terms of treatment. However, it is very important to develop wastewater treatment systems to make water recyclable both in the world and in our country.
Re-use of treated water by paying attention to certain criteria and quality in the agricultural sense can prevent water scarcity, significantly reduce the amount of wastewater generated, enable the use of other freshwater resources as drinking water and provide economic benefits.
When the wastewater treated in the treatment plants is used for irrigation in the agricultural field, the most important thing to pay attention to is the pH value of the treated water, dissolved oxygen, ions and salts, pathogens. By eliminating the troublesome parameters through purification, water suitable for irrigation can be obtained.
The waters purified from the past to the present are used for irrigation. However, the increasing water scarcity has led to the search for ways to treat wastewater and use it as drinking water. So much so that it is suggested that if wastewater can be purified and used as drinking water, it can meet a large part of the drinking water need. Treated wastewater can be mixed into groundwater and surface water to increase drinking water. In other words, it can be used to increase drinking water resources.